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My name is Fabian Schuh and I am the founder of ChainSquad GmbH. I have a Ph.D. in theoretical communications and am full-time in the blockchain-space since 2015.
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Atomic Swaps vs. Sidechain - Don't get fooled

09 Sep 2020

In recent months, we have witnesses some confusion in the crypto currency community about what atomic swaps can offer and why they are not necessarily in-line with common understandings of a sidechain. We here want to clarify the terms and ensure the reader can distinguish these despite confusing marketing in the public.

To do that, we first discuss what atomic swaps can do (not going into the details of how they do it) and what the general understanding of “sidechain” is. We will conclude by giving a simple thought experiment by discussion supply movements.

What Atomic Swaps

Despite the technical details being quite complex due to the usage of hash-time-locked contracts (HTLCs) with hashing and a time-lock, the essence of what an atomic swap can do is quite simple: Let two asset change hands without a third party.

Personally, i wouldn’t call Atomic Swaps atomic as there are multiple processes involved and the actually swapping of the assets is far from being atomic in the sense that they take place that same time. Yet, the swap is often considered atomic since the flow itself is mostly automated and has almost no attack vectors from timing point of view.

If you think about an atomic swap another way, it really is two people meeting each other, one person has one asset, the other has another asset. They swap the assets by handing them over to each other at the same time.

Of course, atomic swaps are interesting because the assets don’t necessarily need to be on the same blockchain which makes this an inter-blockchain transaction, really. In fact, there is an entire protocol that builds on top of atomic swaps to facilitate the exchange of large sums of value.

What becomes quite clear from the above description is that the blockchains themselves do not talk to each other directly, but the swapping takes places through human beings, trust-minimized due to the use of HTLCs.


To be honest right away, we don’t think a clear and concise definition of sidechain really exists. The wikipedia uses this:

A sidechain is a designation for a blockchain ledger that runs in parallel to a primary blockchain. Entries from the primary blockchain (where said entries typically represent digital assets) can be linked to and from the sidechain; this allows the sidechain to otherwise operate independently of the primary blockchain (e.g., by using an alternate means of record keeping, alternate consensus algorithm, etc.).

While this is true for any blockchain that allows to operate user-issued assets (or coloured coins, ERC20 tokens, etc), it does not discuss the aspect of trust. In short: What you argue about a blockchain being a “sidechain” just because someone manages a BTC symbol on it and allows deposits and withdrawals? Would you consider an exchange being a sidechain because it has an (mostly internal) database (ledger) for managing user balances? We don’t.

For us, a true sidechain can operate independently (like Wikipedia says), but also autonomously and trustlessly. This is where the challenges, because no sidechains exist, yet. All that the community has are centralized gateways (where one operator controls the supply of a token, liked wrapped BTC on Ethereum), or a federated gateway (where multiple parties jointly managed the supply, like with Liquid). No fully automated, autonomous, and trustless sidechain exists, yet and given the limited functionalities of Bitcoin, we may never find one - at least not with Bitcoin.

What would a true sidechain look like?

Let’s say we have two different blockchains that each have their own functionality and features. Let’s say, the target audience of one blockchain is music and the other blockchain focuses on social media. Now, obviously, some users want to use both. Instead of having to spend money to obtain tokens on both blockchains, which is capital in-efficient, the ideal solution would be to have a common digital asset that can move freely (and without counterparty risk) from one chain to the other and vise versa. So, in a sense, the blockchains may need to be aware of each other, or at least of the transfers that affect both of them so they can independently verify and validate moving funds.

Supply Comparison

The different between sidechain and atomic swaps is quite simple to see if you take a look at the supply side. In the case of regular atomic swaps, the supply on both blockchains stay the same - only the hands change - and the blockchains are not aware of each other. On the other hand, a sidechain allows to move supply from one chain to another. Tokens that are transferred disappear from one chain (i.e., reduce the supply) while they appear on the other chain (i.e., are newly minted).

Now that we understand the difference, we also see where the challenges are. Obviously, developing a true sidechain is (still) considered the holy grail in the space. But don’t let yourself get fooled by marketing buzzword bing, at this point, no team has managed to build a truly autonomous and counterparty-risk free sidechain to Bitcoin.

We do envision that true sidechains will become available in the future, but they may not interact with Bitcoin but with other (more sophisticated) blockchains.